Development of a multi-parametric model predictive control algorithm for insulin delivery in type 1 diabetes mellitus using clinical parameters

J Process Control. 2011 Mar 1;21(3):391-404. doi: 10.1016/j.jprocont.2010.10.003.


A multi-parametric model predictive control (mpMPC) algorithm for subcutaneous insulin delivery for individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) that is computationally efficient, robust to variations in insulin sensitivity, and involves minimal burden for the user is proposed. System identification was achieved through impulse response tests feasible for ambulatory conditions on the UVa/Padova simulator adult subjects with T1DM. An alternative means of system identification using readily available clinical parameters was also investigated. A safety constraint was included explicitly in the algorithm formulation using clinical parameters typical of those available to an attending physician. Closed-loop simulations were carried out with daily consumption of 200 g carbohydrate. Controller robustness was assessed by subject/model mismatch scenarios addressing daily, simultaneous variation in insulin sensitivity and meal size with the addition of Gaussian white noise with a standard deviation of 10%. A second-order-plus-time-delay transfer function model fit the validation data with a mean (coefficient of variation) root-mean-square-error (RMSE) of 26 mg/dL (19%) for a 3 h prediction horizon. The resulting control law maintained a low risk Low Blood Glucose Index without any information about carbohydrate consumption for 90% of the subjects. Low-order linear models with clinically meaningful parameters thus provided sufficient information for a model predictive control algorithm to control glycemia. The use of clinical knowledge as a safety constraint can reduce hypoglycemic events, and this same knowledge can further improve glycemic control when used explicitly as the controller model. The resulting mpMPC algorithm was sufficiently compact to be implemented on a simple electronic device.