Although γ-secretase was first identified as a protease that cleaves amyloid precursor protein (APP) within the transmembrane domain, thus producing Aβ peptides that are thought to be pathogenic in Alzheimer's disease (AD), its physiological functions have not been fully elucidated. In the canonical Notch signaling pathway, intramembrane cleavage by γ-secretase serves to release an intracellular domain of Notch that shows activity in the nucleus through binding to transcription factors. Many type 1 transmembrane proteins, including Notch, Delta, and APP, have recently been shown to be substrates for γ-secretase, and their intracellular domains are released from the cell membrane following cleavage by γ-secretase. The common enzyme γ-secretase modulates proteolysis and the turnover of possible signaling molecules, which has led to the attractive hypothesis that mechanisms similar to Notch signaling contribute widely to proteolysis-regulated signaling pathways. APP is also likely to have a signaling mechanism, although the physiological functions of APP have not been elucidated. Indeed, we have shown that the intracellular domain of APP alters gene expression and induces neuron-specific apoptosis. These results suggest that APP signaling responds to the onset of AD. Here, we review the possibility of γ-secretase-regulated signaling, including APP signaling, which leads to AD.