Mechanism of T cell exhaustion in a chronic environment

BMB Rep. 2011 Apr;44(4):217-31. doi: 10.5483/BMBRep.2011.44.4.217.


T cell exhaustion develops under conditions of antigen-persistence caused by infection with various chronic pathogens, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB), or by the development of cancer. T cell exhaustion is characterized by stepwise and progressive loss of T cell function, which is probably the main reason for the failed immunological control of chronic pathogens and cancers. Recent observations have detailed some of the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that influence the severity of T cell exhaustion. Duration and magnitude of antigenic activation of T cells might be associated with up-regulation of inhibitory receptors, which is a major intrinsic factor of T cell exhaustion. Extrinsic factors might include the production of suppressive cytokines, T cell priming by either non-professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) or tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCs), and alteration of regulatory T (Treg) cells. Further investigation of the cellular and molecular processes behind the development of T cell exhaustion can reveal therapeutic targets and strategies for the treatment of chronic infections and cancers. Here, we report the properties and the mechanisms of T cell exhaustion in a chronic environment.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Chronic Disease
  • Humans
  • Neoplasms / immunology
  • Neoplasms / pathology
  • Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell / immunology
  • Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell / metabolism
  • Receptors, Cytokine / metabolism
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology*
  • Virus Diseases / immunology
  • Virus Diseases / pathology


  • Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell
  • Receptors, Cytokine