The treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) possesses numerous difficulties owing to the unclear etiology of the disease. This article overviews the drugs used in the treatment of IBD depending on the intensity of clinical symptoms (Canine Inflammatory Bowel Disease Activity Index and Canine Chronic Enterophaty Clinical Activity Index). Patients demonstrating mild symptoms of the disease are usually placed on an appropriate diet which may be combined with immunomodulative or probiotic treatment. In moderate progression of IBD, 5-aminosalicylic acid (mesalazine or olsalazine) derivatives may be administered. Patients showing severe symptoms of the disease are usually treated with immunosuppressive drugs, antibiotics and elimination diet. Since the immune system plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease, the advancements in biological therapy research will contribute to the progress in the treatment of canine and feline IBD in the coming years.