The adjuvant effect of Sophy β-glucan to the antibody response in poultry immunized by the avian influenza A H5N1 and H5N2 vaccines

J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011 Apr;21(4):405-11.


Avian influenza virus vaccines produced in oil-emulsified inactivated form with antigen content of at least 160 hemagglutinin units (HAU) induced immunity in birds. However, in addition to enhancing the effect of the adjuvant(s), other additional supplemented biological compounds included in inactivated vaccines could produce higher levels of antibody. We examined in chickens, Vietnamese ducks, and muscovy ducks the adjuvant effect of Sophy β-glucan (SBG), a β-1,3-1,6 glucan produced by the black yeast Aureobasidium pollulans strain AF0-202, when administered with an avian influenza H5 subtype vaccine. In Experiment 1, 40 chickens (ISA Brown hybrid), allocated to four groups of ten each, were immunized with Oil-H5N1(VN), Oil-H5N1(CN), Oil-H5N2(CN), and saline (control group), respectively. In Experiment 2, chickens (ISA Brown hybrid), muscovy ducks (French hybrid), and Vietnamese ducks (indigenous Vietnamese) were used to further assess the effect of SBG on immunogenicity of the Oil-H5N1(VN) Vietnamese vaccine. ELISA and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays were used to assess the antibody response. The H5 subtype vaccines initiated significantly higher immune responses in the animals dosed with SBG, with 1.0-1.5 log2 higher HI titers and 10-20% ELISA seroconversion, compared with those not dosed with β-glucan. Notably, some of the animals dosed with SBG induced HI titers higher than 9.0 log2 following boosting immunization. Taken together, our serial studies indicated that SBG is a potential effector, such as enhancing the immune response to the H5 vaccines tested.

MeSH terms

  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage*
  • Animals
  • Antibody Formation*
  • Ascomycota / chemistry
  • Ascomycota / metabolism
  • Chickens
  • Ducks
  • Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests
  • Immunization
  • Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype / immunology*
  • Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype / physiology
  • Influenza A Virus, H5N2 Subtype / immunology*
  • Influenza A Virus, H5N2 Subtype / physiology
  • Influenza Vaccines / administration & dosage
  • Influenza Vaccines / immunology*
  • Influenza in Birds / immunology*
  • Influenza in Birds / prevention & control
  • Influenza in Birds / virology
  • Poultry Diseases / immunology*
  • Poultry Diseases / prevention & control
  • Poultry Diseases / virology
  • Vaccines, Inactivated / administration & dosage
  • Vaccines, Inactivated / immunology
  • beta-Glucans / administration & dosage
  • beta-Glucans / immunology*


  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Influenza Vaccines
  • Vaccines, Inactivated
  • beta-Glucans