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, 87 (1), 157-61

Selectivity of the Cleavage/Attachment Site of Phosphatidylinositol-Glycan-Anchored Membrane Proteins Determined by Site-Specific Mutagenesis at Asp-484 of Placental Alkaline Phosphatase

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Selectivity of the Cleavage/Attachment Site of Phosphatidylinositol-Glycan-Anchored Membrane Proteins Determined by Site-Specific Mutagenesis at Asp-484 of Placental Alkaline Phosphatase

R Micanovic et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.

Abstract

Many proteins are now known to be anchored to the plasma membrane by a phosphatidylinositol-glycan (PI-G) moiety that is attached to their COOH termini. Placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) has been used as a model for investigating mechanisms involved in the COOH-terminal processing of PI-G-tailed proteins. The COOH-terminal domain of pre-pro-PLAP provides a signal for processing during which a largely hydrophobic 29-residue COOH-terminal peptide is removed, and the PI-G moiety is added to the newly exposed Asp-484 terminus. This cleavage/attachment site was subjected to an almost saturation mutagenesis, and the enzymatic activities, COOH-terminal processing, and cellular localizations of the various mutant PLAP forms were determined. Substitution of Asp-484 by glycine, alanine, cysteine, asparagine, or serine (category I) resulted in PI-G-tailed and enzymatically active proteins. However, not all category I mutant proteins were PI-G tailed to the same extent. Pre-pro-PLAP with other substituents at position 484 (threonine, proline, methionine, valine, leucine, tyrosine, tryptophan, lysine, glutamic acid, and glutamine; category II) were expressed, as well as the category I amino acids, but there was little or no processing to the PI-G-tailed form, and this latter group exhibited very low enzyme activity. The bulk of the PLAP protein produced by category II mutants and some produced by category I mutants were sequestered within the cell, apparently in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Most likely, certain amino acids at residue 484 are preferred because they yield better substrates for the putative "transamidating" enzyme. In transfected COS cells, at least, posttranslational PI-G-tail processing does not go to completion even for preferred substrates. Apparently PI-G tailing is a requisite for transport from the ER and for PLAP enzyme activity. Proteins that are not transamidated are apparently retained in the ER in an inactive conformation.

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