The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has emerged to be an important model organism for the study of oxygenic eukaryotic photosynthesis as well as other processes occurring in the chloroplast. However, the chloroplast proteome in C. reinhardtii has only recently been comprehensively characterized, made possible by proteomics emerging as an accessible and powerful tool over the last decade. In this review, we introduce a compiled list of 996 experimentally chloroplast-localized proteins for C. reinhardtii, stemming largely from our previous proteomic dataset comparing chloroplasts and mitochondria samples to localize proteins. In order to get a taste of some cellular functions taking place in the C. reinhardtii chloroplast, we will focus this review particularly on metabolic differences between chloroplasts of C. reinhardtii and higher plants. Areas that will be covered are photosynthesis, chlorophyll biosynthesis, carbon metabolism, fermentative metabolism, ferredoxins and ferredoxin-interacting proteins.