This study was undertaken to determine the results of resection of hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhotic patients in Europe, using the same criteria as in the Orient for detection, surgical management, and pathology of the tumors. Seventy-two patients had a liver resection. One- and 3-yr survival rates were 68% and 51%, respectively. Survival rate was significantly higher in Child's/Pugh's class A than in class B-C patients. Patients with a thickly encapsulated tumor lived longer than those with an infiltrating tumor and had in addition a significantly lower incidence of cancer recurrence. Class A patients with a thickly encapsulated hepatocellular carcinoma had a 77% 3-year survival rate. There was no relation between the size of the tumor or the presence of symptoms and survival. These data suggest that good results can be achieved by resection of hepatocellular carcinomas in European cirrhotic patients. A thickly encapsulated tumor and an adequate liver function are the main determinants of low cancer recurrence and high survival. The clinical results in this series are similar to those reported from the Orient.