Purpose of review: This review offers a comprehensive summary of the recent publications on the treatment of vesicovaginal fistula. Most reports are related to obstetric fistula in the developing world but in the developed world fistula treatment remains a challenge.
Recent findings: The quality of the research in this field is improving. Efforts are being made to improve the classification of fistula as a prognostic tool. Surgical innovations are few in this field. Laparoscopic approaches are reported but only on a very limited amount of patients.
Summary: The surgical management of fistula remains a two-track item: the gigantic experience on obstetric fistula of fistula surgeons in Africa and Asia and the limited experience of some Western centres with mostly a small series of iatrogenic fistula. Advances are made in both worlds. The previously isolated fistula surgeons are now better organized and they stimulate scientific research in countries with very limited resources. The centres in the developed world explore new surgical approaches such as laparoscopy and minimally invasive treatments.