Fear of movement in cancer survivors: validation of the modified Tampa scale of kinesiophobia-fatigue

Psychooncology. 2012 Jul;21(7):762-70. doi: 10.1002/pon.1971. Epub 2011 May 2.


Objective: To date, there is no validated questionnaire to assess fear of movement in cancer survivors. We aim to validate the modified Tampa scale of kinesiophobia-fatigue (TSK-F) in Dutch cancer survivors participating in a rehabilitation programme. We first select the optimal model for cancer survivors. Subsequently, stability, internal consistency, and construct validity of the optimal model is tested.

Methods: A sample of 658 cancer survivors participating in a rehabilitation programme was included. Out of nine models derived in chronic pain and chronic fatigue patients, the optimal model of the TSK-F was selected in a calibration sample (n1 = 329) using confirmatory factor analysis. Stability of the derived optimal model was confirmed in a validation sample (n2 = 329). Internal consistency and construct validity were assessed in the full sample.

Results: The 11-item two-factor model of the TSK-F was the best-fitting model for cancer survivors and it seemed to be invariant for sex and cancer diagnosis. Internal consistency of the model was acceptable (Cronbach's alpha between 0.62 and 0.74). Construct validity was illustrated by significant associations between TSK-F total and TSK-F somatic focus with perceived global health status (EORTC-QOL-C30) and fatigue (FACT-F) (p<0.001).

Conclusions: The adjusted 11-item TSK-F consisting of two subscales 'somatic focus' and 'activity avoidance' seems to be a robust and valid tool in measuring fear of movement in cancer survivors with an acceptable internal consistency. Further psychometric testing of the TSK-F in cancer survivors is recommended. In the future, TSK-F scores may be used to customise rehabilitation programmes in cancer survivors.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Factor Analysis, Statistical
  • Fatigue / psychology
  • Fear / psychology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Movement*
  • Neoplasms / psychology*
  • Neoplasms / rehabilitation*
  • Netherlands
  • Pain Measurement
  • Phobic Disorders / diagnosis*
  • Phobic Disorders / psychology
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
  • Psychometrics / methods*
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Surveys and Questionnaires*
  • Survivors / psychology*
  • Young Adult