[The immuno-endocrine system. A new endocrine theory: the problem of the packed transport]

Orv Hetil. 2011 May 15;152(20):777-84. doi: 10.1556/OH.2011.29122.
[Article in Hungarian]


Since the eighties of the last century hormone content was justified in immune cells (lymphocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, macrophages and mast cells), which produce, store and secrete these hormones. Although the amount of these materials in immune cells is relatively small, the mass of the producers (immune cells) is so large, that the phenomenon must be considered from endocrinological point of view, underlying the important differences between the "classical" and immuno-endocrine systems. Cells of the classic (built-in) endocrine system are mono-producers, while immune cells can synthesize many types of hormones (polyproducers). In addition, these cells can transport the whole hormone-producing machinery to the site of need, producing a local effect. This can be observed, for example, in the case of endorphin producing immune cells during inflammation and during early pregnancy around the chorionic villi. Hormone producing immune cells also have receptors for many hormones, so that they are poly-receivers. Via hormone producing and receiving capacity there is a bidirectional connection between the neuro-endocrine and immuno-endocrine systems. In addition, there is a network inside the immuno-endocrine system. The packed transport theory attempts to explain the mechanism and importance of the immuno-endocrine system.

Publication types

  • English Abstract
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Endocrine System / immunology*
  • Endocrine System / metabolism*
  • Endorphins / immunology
  • Endorphins / metabolism
  • Female
  • Granulocytes / immunology
  • Granulocytes / metabolism*
  • Hormones / immunology*
  • Hormones / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Immune System / immunology
  • Immune System / metabolism*
  • Inflammation / immunology
  • Inflammation / metabolism
  • Lymphocytes / immunology
  • Lymphocytes / metabolism*
  • Pregnancy
  • Pro-Opiomelanocortin / immunology
  • Pro-Opiomelanocortin / metabolism
  • Sex Factors
  • Stress, Psychological / immunology
  • Stress, Psychological / metabolism
  • Thymus Gland / immunology
  • Thyronines / immunology
  • Thyronines / metabolism
  • Thyrotropin / immunology
  • Thyrotropin / metabolism


  • Endorphins
  • Hormones
  • Thyronines
  • Pro-Opiomelanocortin
  • Thyrotropin