The role of the gut sweet taste receptor in regulating GLP-1, PYY, and CCK release in humans

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Aug;301(2):E317-25. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00077.2011. Epub 2011 May 3.


The recent identification of sweet taste receptors in the gastrointestinal tract has important implications in the control of food intake and glucose homeostasis. Lactisole can inhibit the sweet taste receptor T1R2/T1R3. The objective was to use lactisole as a probe to investigate the physiological role of T1R2/T1R3 by assessing the effect of T1R2/T1R3 blockade on GLP-1, PYY, and CCK release in response to 1) intragastric administration of nutrients or 2) intraduodenal perfusion of nutrients. The study was performed as a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study that included 35 healthy subjects. In part I, subjects received intragastrically 75 g of glucose in 300 ml of water or 500 ml of a mixed liquid meal with or without lactisole. In part II, subjects received an intraduodenal perfusion of glucose (29.3 g glucose/100 ml; rate: 2.5 ml/min for 180 min) or a mixed liquid meal (same rate) with or without lactisole. The results were that 1) lactisole induced a significant reduction in GLP-1 and PYY but not CCK secretion in both the intragastric and the intraduodenal glucose-stimulated parts (P ≤ 0.05), 2) comparison of the inhibitory effect of lactisole showed a significantly greater suppression of the hormone response in the intragastric part (P = 0.023), and 3) lactisole had no effect on liquid meal-stimulated parameters. We conclude that T1R2/T1R3 is involved in glucose-dependent secretion of satiation peptides. However, the results of the liquid meal-stimulated parts show that the receptor alone is not responsible for peptide secretion.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Appetite / drug effects
  • Appetite / physiology
  • Benzene Derivatives / administration & dosage
  • Cholecystokinin / metabolism*
  • Duodenum / physiology
  • Eating / drug effects
  • Eating / physiology
  • Female
  • Gastric Emptying / drug effects
  • Gastric Emptying / physiology
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 / metabolism*
  • Glucose / administration & dosage
  • Humans
  • Intubation, Gastrointestinal
  • Male
  • Peptide YY / metabolism*
  • Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / physiology*
  • Taste / drug effects
  • Taste / physiology*
  • Young Adult


  • Benzene Derivatives
  • Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled
  • taste receptors, type 1
  • Peptide YY
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
  • Cholecystokinin
  • Glucose
  • lactisole