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Randomized Controlled Trial
. 2011;58(2):133-40.
doi: 10.1159/000327150. Epub 2011 Apr 29.

A Combination of (ω-3) Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids, Polyphenols and L-carnitine Reduces the Plasma Lipid Levels and Increases the Expression of Genes Involved in Fatty Acid Oxidation in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells and HepG2 Cells

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Randomized Controlled Trial

A Combination of (ω-3) Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids, Polyphenols and L-carnitine Reduces the Plasma Lipid Levels and Increases the Expression of Genes Involved in Fatty Acid Oxidation in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells and HepG2 Cells

Ulla Radler et al. Ann Nutr Metab. .

Abstract

Background: Hyperlipidemia and obesity are associated with metabolic syndrome and increased risk in developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Nutritional supplements, e.g. L-carnitine and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), exert lipid-lowering effects. Hence, the hypothesis that dietetic intervention reduces plasma lipid levels and metabolic enzymes in overweight hyperlipidemic subjects was tested.

Subjects and methods: In a prospective placebo-controlled double-blind study in 22 moderately hyperlipidemic obese humans consuming low-fat yoghurt enriched with a combination of low-dose PUFAs, polyphenols and L-carnitine (PPC) twice a day for 12 weeks were compared to 20 matching participants ingesting low-fat yoghurt. The effects on plasma lipids and expression of enzymes involved in regulation of fatty acid oxidation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and HepG2 cells were evaluated.

Results: PPC consumption led to significantly reduced plasma free fatty acid (-29%) and triglyceride (-24%) concentrations (each p < 0.05). PPC application increased significantly peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) mRNA abundances and those of PPARα target genes (carnitine palmitoyltransferases-1, CPT1A and CPT1B, carnitine acetyltransferase and organic cation transporter 2; each p < 0.05) in PBMCs. In controls, plasma lipid levels and PBMC gene expression did not change. These findings were substantiated by the results of cell culture experiments in HepG2 cells.

Conclusion: Supplementation of PPC had marked lipid-lowering effects and PBMC gene expression profiles seemed to reflect nutrition-related metabolic changes.

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