Dietary fat intake and polymorphisms at the PPARG locus modulate BMI and type 2 diabetes risk in the D.E.S.I.R. prospective study

Int J Obes (Lond). 2012 Feb;36(2):218-24. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2011.91. Epub 2011 May 3.


Context: Fat-rich diets are involved in many disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). The Pro12Ala variant of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) is known to modulate body mass index (BMI) and T2D risk.

Objective: Our aim was to study the interaction effect between PPARγ gene (PPARG) polymorphisms Pro12Ala and 1431C>T and fat intake on incident T2D and BMI in a 9-year prospective cohort drawn from the French general population, the D.E.S.I.R. (Data from an Epidemiological Study on the Insulin Resistance Syndrome) study (n=4676).

Methods: Nutritional intake was assessed by a food frequency self-questionnaire completed by each participant. Statistical analyses included logistic regression, analysis of covariance and haplotype analysis, with adjustment for confounding variables.

Results: A high fat consumption (the third sex-specific tertile of fat intake, as a percentage of energy intake) was associated with an increased T2D risk among ProPro and CC homozygotes (P(interaction)=0.05, odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (95% CI))=1.73 (1.19-2.52) P=0.004 and OR=1.85 (1.27-2.71) P=0.001, respectively) but not in Ala and T carriers. There was a significant interaction effect between Pro12Ala and 1431C>T on BMI (P(interaction)=0.004); Ala was associated with lower BMI in CC homozygotes and with higher BMI in T carriers while the opposite was found for ProPro. There was also an interaction effect between Pro12Ala and dietary fat intake on BMI (P(interaction)=0.02); AlaAla individuals had a higher BMI than Pro carriers among high fat consumers (27.1 ± 1.0 versus 24.9 ± 0.1 for AlaAla and Pro+, respectively). There was no interaction effect between the 1431C>T single-nucleotide polymorphism and fat intake on BMI.

Conclusion: Our results indicate strong genetic and nutritional interaction effects on BMI and T2D risk at the PPARG locus in a general population.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Body Mass Index*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / epidemiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / genetics*
  • Dietary Fats* / pharmacology
  • Female
  • France / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Insulin Resistance / genetics
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Obesity / epidemiology
  • Obesity / genetics*
  • PPAR gamma / genetics*
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide*
  • Prospective Studies
  • Surveys and Questionnaires


  • Dietary Fats
  • PPAR gamma