The gene expression of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) in response to 4 h of infection by Listeria monocytogenes was analyzed. Four hours after infection, the expression of 456 genes of HBMEC had changed (p < 0.05). We noted that many active genes were involved in the formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine pathway in infected HBMEC. In the upregulated genes, mRNA levels of interleukin-8 and interleukin-15 in infected cells increased according to microarray and real-time reverse transcription - PCR analyses. Since both cytokines are regarded as potent chemotactic factors, the results suggest that HBMEC are capable of recruiting cells of innate and adaptive immune responses during early L. monocytogenes infection.