The impact of acculturation on depression among older Muslim immigrants in the United States

J Gerontol Soc Work. 2011 May;54(4):425-48. doi: 10.1080/01634372.2011.560928.


Using a cross-sectional design, this study utilized a self-administered survey to examine the relationship between acculturation, physical and emotional health, health locus of control (LOC), life events and depression among a convenient sample of 70 immigrant Muslim elderly in United States of America. In addition to demographic variables, 5 standardized measures including the Vancouver Index of Acculturation, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD), Iowa Self-Assessment Inventory, Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, and the Geriatric Scale of Recent Life Events were utilized in this study. The results showed that about 50% of participants reported a score of 16 and above on the CESD scale, indicating a presence of depressive symptoms. In addition, most participants identified with their heritage culture compared to the American culture. The results of multiple regression analysis revealed 4 significant predictors of depression: cognitive status (β = -.34, p < .01), heritage culture (β = .35, p < .01), physical health (β = -.27, p < .05), and internal health locus of control (β = -.25, p < .05). These factors explain about 37% of the total variance in levels depression (R = .61).

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acculturation*
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Depression / epidemiology
  • Depression / ethnology*
  • Depression / etiology
  • Emigrants and Immigrants / psychology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Interviews as Topic
  • Islam*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Regression Analysis
  • United States / epidemiology