A retrospective cohort study was conducted to examine risk and protective factors for combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms reported by soldiers (n = 2,583) at postdeployment. Positive appraisals of military service related negatively, OR = 0.86, 95% CI [0.83, 0.89], to screening positive for presumed PTSD at postdeployment. Decreases in perceived intimate relationship strength from predeployment to postdeployment were positively associated with presumed PTSD at higher, but not lower, levels of combat exposure; this effect, OR = 1.91, 95% CI [1.08, 3.39], was found only for female soldiers. Overall risk for postdeployment presumed PTSD was found to be nearly 2.5 times greater for women, as compared to men. In addition, positive screening rates of anxiety, depression, hazardous alcohol use, and PTSD increased from predeployment to postdeployment, with the most prominent increase found for PTSD.
Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.