In the past few years, bone marrow (BM)-derived cells have been used to regenerate damaged cardiovascular tissues post-myocardial infarction. Recent clinical trials have shown controversial results in recovering damaged cardiac tissue. New progress has shown that the underlying mechanisms of cell-based therapy relies more heavily on humoral and paracrine effects rather than on new tissue generation. However, studies have also reported the potential of new endothelial cell generation from BM cells. Thus, efforts have been made to identify cells having higher humoral or therapeutic effects as well as their surface markers. Specifically, BM-derived CD31+ cells were isolated by a surface marker and demonstrated high angio-vasculogenic effects. This article will describe recent advances in the therapeutic use of BM-derived cells and the usefulness of CD31+ cells.