Background: Triglycerides is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD) and is especially important in Indians because of high prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia in this population. Both genetic and environmental factors determine triglyceride levels. In a birth cohort from India, hypertriglyceridemia was found in 41% of men and 11% of women. Subjects who had high triglycerides had more rapid body mass index (BMI) or weight gain than rest of the cohort throughout infancy, childhood and adolescence. We analysed polymorphisms in APOA5, hepatic lipase and PPARγ genes and investigated their association with birth weight and serial changes in BMI.
Results: Polymorphisms in APOA5 (-1131T > C, S19W), PPARγ (Pro12Ala) and hepatic lipase (-514C > T) were studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by restriction digestion in 1492 subjects from the New Delhi Birth Cohort (NDBC). We assessed whether these polymorphisms influence lipid and other variables and serial changes in BMI, both individually and together.The risk allele of APOA5 (-1131C) resulted in 23.6 mg/dl higher triglycerides as compared to normal allele (P < 0.001). Risk allele of HL (-514T) was associated with significantly higher HDL2 levels (P = 0.002). Except for the marginal association of PPARγ Pro12Ala variation with a lower conditional weight at 6 months, (P = 0.020) and APOA5 S19W with a higher conditional BMI at 11 yrs of age (P = 0.030), none of the other associations between the gene polymorphisms and serial changes in body mass index from birth to young adulthood were significant.
Conclusion: The promoter polymorphism in APOA5 was associated with raised serum triglycerides and that of HL with raised HDL2 levels. None of the polymorphisms had any significant relationship with birth weight or serial changes in anthropometry from birth to adulthood in this cohort.