The sudden rise of angiosperms to ecological dominance was an "abominable mystery" to Charles Darwin, and understanding the underlying evolutionary driving force has remained a scientific challenge since then. The recognition of polyploidization as an important factor for plant speciation is likely to hold a key to this mystery and we will discuss possible mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. Polyploidization raises an immediate reproductive barrier in the endosperm, pointing towards an important but greatly underestimated role of the endosperm in preventing interploidy hybridizations. Parent-of-origin-specific gene expression is largely restricted to the endosperm, providing an explanation for the dosage sensitivity of the endosperm. Here, we review epigenetic mechanisms causing endosperm dosage sensitivity, their possible consequences for raising interploidy and interspecies hybridization barriers and their impact on flowering plant evolution. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Epigenetic Control.
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