Objective: To study across childhood the features of small for gestational age (SGA) girls with spontaneous catch-up growth.
Design: Longitudinal study (age 2-8 years).
Setting: University hospital.
Patient(s): Post-catch-up SGA girls (n = 18) versus healthy control girls born appropriate for gestational age (AGA; n = 13).
Main outcome measure(s): Height, weight, fasting glucose, insulin, IGF-I, high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin, LDL and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, body composition by absorptiometry (2-8 years); visceral fat by magnetic resonance imaging (6-8 years); bone age (by automated reading), sex hormone-binding globulin, DHEAS, and leptin (8 years).
Result(s): At age 2 years, AGA and SGA girls were comparable for all study markers. Between 2 and 8 years, girls were prepubertal; AGA and SGA girls gained height, lean mass, and bone mineral content similarly; other outcomes diverged so that, at age 8, SGA girls had markedly higher levels of circulating insulin, IGF-I, DHEAS, LDL cholesterol, and leptin; lower HMW adiponectin and SHBG levels; more total and visceral fat (without being obese); and an older bone age.
Conclusion(s): After completing catch-up growth and before starting puberty, SGA girls develop an ensemble that includes not only central adiposity, hyperinsulinemia, and hypoadiponectinemia but also hyperleptinemia, dyslipidemia, lower SHBG and higher DHEAS levels, and faster bone maturation.
Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.