This article reviews the pathophysiology, prevalence, incidence, and consequences of delirium, focusing on the evaluation of delirium, the published models of care for prevention in patients at risk of delirium, and management of patients for whom delirium is not preventable. Evidence on why physical restraints should not be used for patients with delirium is reviewed. Current available evidence on antipyschotics does not support the role for the general use in the treatment of delirium. An example of a restraint-free, nonpharmacologic management approach [called the TADA approach (tolerate, anticipate, and don't agitate)] is presented.
Published by Elsevier Inc.