Changes in Paramecium caudatum (protozoa) near a switched-on GSM telephone

Electromagn Biol Med. 2011 Mar;30(1):57-66. doi: 10.3109/15368378.2011.566778.


The protozoan Paramecium caudatum was examined under normal conditions versus aside a switched-on GSM telephone (900 MHz; 2 Watts). Exposed individuals moved more slowly and more sinuously than usual. Their physiology was affected: they became broader, their cytopharynx appeared broader, their pulse vesicles had difficult in expelling their content outside the cell, their cilia less efficiently moved, and trichocysts became more visible. All these effects might result from some bad functioning or damage of the cellular membrane. The first target of communication electromagnetic waves might thus be the cellular membrane.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antigens, Protozoan / metabolism
  • Antigens, Protozoan / radiation effects*
  • Antigens, Protozoan / ultrastructure
  • Cell Membrane / metabolism
  • Cell Membrane / radiation effects*
  • Cell Membrane / ultrastructure
  • Cell Phone*
  • Cilia / metabolism
  • Cilia / radiation effects
  • Cilia / ultrastructure
  • Humans
  • Microscopy, Electron
  • Paramecium caudatum / cytology
  • Paramecium caudatum / metabolism
  • Paramecium caudatum / radiation effects*
  • Protozoan Infections / etiology
  • Protozoan Infections / metabolism
  • Protozoan Infections / pathology
  • Radio Waves*


  • Antigens, Protozoan