Adjuvants for enhancing the immunogenicity of whole tumor cell vaccines

Int Rev Immunol. Apr-Jun 2011;30(2-3):150-82. doi: 10.3109/08830185.2011.572210.

Abstract

Whole tumor cell lysates can serve as excellent multivalent vaccines for priming tumor-specific CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells. Whole cell vaccines can be prepared with hypochlorous acid oxidation, UVB-irradiation and repeat cycles of freeze and thaw. One major obstacle to successful immunotherapy is breaking self-tolerance to tumor antigens. Clinically approved adjuvants, including Montanide™ ISA-51 and 720, and keyhole-limpet proteins can be used to enhance tumor cell immunogenicity by stimulating both humoral and cellular anti-tumor responses. Other potential adjuvants, such as Toll-like receptor agonists (e.g., CpG, MPLA and PolyI:C), and cytokines (e.g., granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor), have also been investigated.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage*
  • Antibody Formation / immunology
  • Cancer Vaccines / immunology*
  • Cancer Vaccines / therapeutic use
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Female
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / administration & dosage
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / immunology
  • Hemocyanins / administration & dosage
  • Hemocyanins / immunology
  • Humans
  • Immunotherapy / methods*
  • Mannitol / administration & dosage
  • Mannitol / analogs & derivatives
  • Mannitol / immunology
  • Oleic Acids / administration & dosage
  • Oleic Acids / immunology
  • Ovarian Neoplasms / immunology*
  • Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • Toll-Like Receptors / agonists*
  • Treatment Outcome

Substances

  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Cancer Vaccines
  • Oleic Acids
  • Toll-Like Receptors
  • montanide ISA 51
  • mannide monooleate
  • Mannitol
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
  • Hemocyanins
  • keyhole-limpet hemocyanin