Objective: To compare the fetomaternal outcome in women with spontaneous preterm labor, with or without bacterial vaginosis (BV).
Methods: One hundred and fifty-two pregnant patients presenting with spontaneous preterm labor between 28 and 35 weeks of gestation were screened for BV using Amsel's criteria and Nugent score, and were divided into two groups of 30 patients each, based on the BV positive or negative screen. Both the groups were followed till puerperium, and the fetal-maternal outcome was studied. The data was analyzed using Chi-square test and Man-Whitney test.
Results: BV was detected in 37 out of 152 women with preterm labor (24.34%). There was a significant increase in the incidence of respiratory distress (14% vs. 6%), requirement of intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) (14% vs. 5%), admission in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) (15% vs. 6%), and duration of NICU stay >2 days (15% vs. 6%) in patients with BV. No significant difference was found in the mean birth weight, Apgar score, incidence of neonatal sepsis, perinatal mortality, and postpartum fever between the two groups.
Conclusions: BV is a risk factor for increased neonatal morbidity. More research is needed for designing appropriate screening and treatment guidelines for prevention of adverse outcomes associated with BV.