Background: In order to improve technique and to prevent serious procedural complications during transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), it is crucial to identify the causes of death of patients undergoing this procedure.
Objective: The objective of this study was to identify the causes of death during the procedure and at 1 month in patients with severe aortic stenosis undergoing TAVI.
Methods: 12 published studies with information about the causes of death in patients undergoing TAVI were selected. Overall, 1223 patients were included in these studies, and 249 deaths were reported (119 at 1 month and 130 at >1 month post-procedure). Mortality during the procedure and at 1 month was 2.3% and 9.7%, respectively. The proportion of cardiac deaths was higher at <1 month in comparison with >1 month (56% versus 34%, respectively; p = 0.001). At 1 month, the most frequent causes of death were cardiac failure/multi-organ failure (24%), sudden death/cardiac arrest (17%), vascular and bleeding complications (17%), stroke (11%), sepsis (11%), and cardiac tamponade (10%). During the procedure, the most frequent causes of death were cardiac tamponade (39%), cardiac failure (21%), cardiac arrest (18%), and vascular and/or bleeding complications (18%). In patients treated with the CoreValve system (Medtronic, Minneapolis, Minnesota) versus those treated with Edwards valves (Cribier-Edwards, Edwards-SAPIEN or SAPIEN XT valve, Edward Lifesciences, Irvine, California), deaths at 1 month due to vascular and bleeding complications were less frequent (3% versus 22%, respectively; p = 0.019), but those due to cardiac tamponade (26% versus 6%, respectively; p = 0.019), and because of aortic regurgitation (10% versus 0%, respectively; p = 0.03) were more frequent.
Conclusion: In this pooled analysis, mortality at 1 month after TAVI was 9.7%. The causes of death were widely variable, and of both cardiac and non-cardiac origin. There were some important differences between both devices in the cause of mortality.