Systemic and oral clearances of alfentanil (ALF) are in vivo probes for hepatic and first-pass cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A. Both ALF single-point plasma concentrations and miosis are surrogates for area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and clearance and are minimal and noninvasive CYP3A probes. This investigation determined ALF sensitivity for detecting graded CYP3A induction and compared it with that of midazolam (MDZ). Twelve volunteers (sequential crossover) received 0, 5, 10, 25, or 75 mg oral rifampin for 5 days. MDZ and ALF were given intravenously and orally on sequential days. Dark-adapted pupil diameter was measured with blood sampling. Graded rifampin decreased plasma MDZ AUCs to 83, 76, 62, and 59% (intravenous (i.v.)) and 78, 66, 39, and 24% (oral) of control. Hepatic and first-pass CYP3A induction were detected comparably by plasma MDZ and ALF AUCs. Single ALF concentrations detected all CYP3A induction, whereas MDZ was less sensitive. ALF miosis detected induction of first-pass but not hepatic CYP3A.