Differential nano-bio interactions and toxicity effects of pristine versus functionalized graphene

Nanoscale. 2011 Jun;3(6):2461-4. doi: 10.1039/c1nr10172b. Epub 2011 May 12.


We report the effect of carboxyl functionalization of graphene in pacifying its strong hydrophobic interaction with cells and associated toxic effects. Pristine graphene was found to accumulate on the cell membrane causing high oxidative stress leading to apoptosis, whereas carboxyl functionalized hydrophilic graphene was internalized by the cells without causing any toxicity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Survival / drug effects*
  • Chlorocebus aethiops
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Graphite / chemistry*
  • Graphite / toxicity*
  • Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions
  • Materials Testing
  • Microscopy, Confocal
  • Nanostructures / chemistry*
  • Nanostructures / toxicity*
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects
  • Toxicity Tests
  • Vero Cells


  • Graphite