introgress: a software package for mapping components of isolation in hybrids

Mol Ecol Resour. 2010 Mar;10(2):378-84. doi: 10.1111/j.1755-0998.2009.02733.x. Epub 2009 Jun 10.


A new software package (introgress) provides functions for analysing introgression of genotypes between divergent, hybridizing lineages, including estimating genomic clines from multi-locus genotype data and testing for deviations from neutral expectations. The software works with co-dominant, dominant and haploid marker data, and does not require fixed allelic differences between parental populations for the sampled genetic markers. Permutation and parametric procedures generate neutral expectations for introgression and provide a basis for significance tests of observed genomic clines. The software also implements maximum likelihood estimates of hybrid index from genotypic data and a number of graphical analyses. The package is an extension of the R statistical software, is written in the R language and is freely available through the Comprehensive R Archive Network (CRAN; In this study, we describe introgress and demonstrate its use with a sample data set.