Fumarate esters as angiogenesis inhibitors: key to action in psoriasis?

J Invest Dermatol. 2011 Jun;131(6):1189-91. doi: 10.1038/jid.2011.45.


Fumarate esters--an oral therapy for psoriasis--are used primarily in Europe, but not at all in the United States. Given that biological therapies are exceedingly expensive and pose an increased risk for infections and malignancy, the need for safer and less expensive therapies for psoriasis is compelling. Nonbiological therapies for psoriasis, including methotrexate and systemic retinoids, carry potentially severe side effects and relatively high cost. Fumarate, a natural product that is generated internally in humans during the Krebs cycle, is an attractive alternative to these therapies. However, the mechanism for fumarate's activity in psoriasis remains unknown.

Publication types

  • Comment
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Angiogenesis Inhibitors / pharmacology*
  • Citric Acid Cycle
  • Dimethyl Fumarate
  • Fumarates / pharmacology*
  • Humans
  • Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit / physiology
  • Isocitrate Dehydrogenase / deficiency
  • Psoriasis / drug therapy*


  • Angiogenesis Inhibitors
  • Fumarates
  • HIF1A protein, human
  • Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit
  • Isocitrate Dehydrogenase
  • Dimethyl Fumarate