c-di-AMP reports DNA integrity during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis

EMBO Rep. 2011 Jun;12(6):594-601. doi: 10.1038/embor.2011.77. Epub 2011 May 13.


The bacterium Bacillus subtilis produces the DNA integrity scanning protein (DisA), a checkpoint protein that delays sporulation in response to DNA damage. DisA scans the chromosome and pauses at sites of DNA lesions. Structural analysis showed that DisA synthesizes the small molecule cyclic diadenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP). Here, we demonstrate that the intracellular concentration of c-di-AMP rises markedly at the onset of sporulation in a DisA-dependent manner. Furthermore, exposing sporulating cells to DNA-damaging agents leads to a global decrease in the level of this molecule. This drop was associated with stalled DisA complexes that halt c-di-AMP production and with increased levels of the c-di-AMP-degrading enzyme YybT. Reduced c-di-AMP levels cause a delay in sporulation that can be reversed by external supplementation of the molecule. Thus, c-di-AMP acts as a secondary messenger, coupling DNA integrity with progression of sporulation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Bacillus subtilis / drug effects
  • Bacillus subtilis / physiology*
  • Bacterial Proteins / genetics
  • Bacterial Proteins / metabolism
  • DNA Damage
  • DNA, Bacterial / genetics
  • DNA, Bacterial / metabolism*
  • Dinucleoside Phosphates / metabolism*
  • Dinucleoside Phosphates / pharmacology
  • Enzyme Activation / genetics
  • Intracellular Space / metabolism
  • Phosphorus-Oxygen Lyases / metabolism
  • Second Messenger Systems / physiology
  • Spores, Bacterial / genetics*


  • Bacterial Proteins
  • DNA, Bacterial
  • Dinucleoside Phosphates
  • cyclic diadenosine phosphate
  • Phosphorus-Oxygen Lyases
  • diadenylate cyclase, Bacillus subtilis