Increased 10-year cardiovascular disease and mortality risk scores in asymptomatic patients with calcium oxalate urolithiasis

Urol Res. 2011 Dec;39(6):451-8. doi: 10.1007/s00240-011-0383-9. Epub 2011 May 13.

Abstract

Both the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and event rate are increased in patients with urolithiasis. Screening is recommended to all patients who have high cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to document 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality in asymptomatic patients with urolithiasis. Consecutive 200 patients with calcium oxalate urolithiasis were compared with 200 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Ten-year cardiovascular disease risk was calculated with the Framingham Risk Score and mortality risk with SCORE risk score. Calcium, oxalate, and citrate excretion were studied as urinary stone risk factors. The results indicate that patients with urolithiasis had higher total cholesterol (p < 0.0001), lower HDL-cholesterol (p < 0.0001), and higher systolic blood pressure (p < 0.0001) and hsCRP (p < 0.0001) compared with controls. Patients with urolithiasis had a higher Framingham Risk Scores [OR 8.36 (95% CI 3.81-18.65), p = 0.0001] and SCORE risk score [OR 3.02 (95% CI 1.30-7.02), p = 0.0006] compared with controls. The Framingham and SCORE risk score were significantly correlated with urinary calcium (p = 0.0001, r = 0.460, and p = 0.005, r = 0.223, respectively) and oxalate excretion (p = 0.0001, r = 0.516, p = 0.001, r = 0.290, respectively). In multiple linear regression analysis, urinary calcium and oxalate excretion, age, sex, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, hsCRP and smoking were the independent predictors of 10-year cardiovascular disease risk and urinary calcium and oxalate excretion, age, sex, total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose for 10-year cardiovascular mortality. In conclusion, patients with calcium oxalate urolithiasis carry high risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. All patients should be screened at the initial diagnosis of urolithiasis for the risk factors.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Calcium / urine
  • Calcium Oxalate / urine*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / mortality*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Citric Acid / urine
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Linear Models
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Oxalates / urine
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Urolithiasis / complications*
  • Urolithiasis / urine
  • Young Adult

Substances

  • Oxalates
  • Calcium Oxalate
  • Citric Acid
  • Calcium