Systemic autoinflammatory diseases are genetic disorders characterized by seemingly unprovoked inflammation, without major involvement of the adaptive immune system. Among them it is recognized the TNF receptor associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) caused by mutations in the TNFRSF1A gene and characterized by symptoms such as recurrent high fevers, rash, abdominal pain, arthralgia and myalgia. Recent studies have recognized the potential role of TNFRSF1A mutations in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Our aim was to investigate the role of TNFRSF1A R92Q gene mutation in a cohort of 90 Argentinean MS patients, where we determined the frequency of the TNFRSF1A R92Q mutation. We also compared autoinflammatory symptoms, MS clinical characteristics and treatment response and tolerability in R92Q carriers and non-carriers. Also, we used a case-control study design to obtain the genotypes of 78 healthy controls and assess the role of this mutation as a risk factor for MS. We found that five patients (5.5%) carried the R92Q mutation, four reported autoinflammatory symptoms previous to MS onset. We found no differences in MS clinical features, treatment response and tolerability between carriers and non-carriers. R92Q mutation was more frequent in MS patients as compared to controls. This increases the risk to develop MS in about 4.5 times. The TNFRSF1A R92Q mutation is a common finding in Argentinean MS patients. This genetic variant might be a risk factor for MS.