Type 1 collagenopathy presenting with a Russell-Silver phenotype

Am J Med Genet A. 2011 Jun;155A(6):1414-8. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.33998. Epub 2011 May 12.


Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders of bone formation, resulting in low bone mass and an increased propensity to fracture. It exhibits a broad spectrum of clinical severity, ranging from multiple fractures in utero and perinatal death, to normal adult stature and low fracture incidence. Extra-skeletal features of OI include blue sclera, hearing loss, skin hyperlaxity, joint hyperextensibility, and dentinogenesis imperfecta. The proα1(I) and proα2(I) chains of collagen 1 are encoded by the COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes, respectively; quantitative or qualitative defects in type I collagen synthesis usually manifest as types of OI or some sub-types of EDS. The majority of patients (about 90%) with a clinical diagnosis of OI have a mutation in the COL1A1 or COL1A2 genes, which shows an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. Six other genes, CRTAP, LEPRE1, FKBP10, PP1B, SP7/Osterix (OSX), and SERPINH1, are associated with autosomal recessive forms of OI. However, other, rare phenotypes have also been described. There are many differential diagnoses of the short, syndromic child, including chromosomal, single gene, and multifactorial causes. However, one condition of particular relevance in the context of this report is the Russell-Silver syndrome (RSS). As originally described, the RSS is a very specific condition. However, it has subsequently become an umbrella term for a heterogeneous group of conditions presenting with short stature and triangular shape to the face. A significant proportion of these are now believed to be due to imprinting defects at 11p15. However, the cause in many cases remains unknown. We describe two cases with a phenotypic overlap between OI and RSS who both have COL1A1 mutations. Thus, a type 1 collagenopathy should be considered in the differential diagnosis of syndromic short stature.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Child
  • Collagen Type I / genetics*
  • Collagen Type I, alpha 1 Chain
  • Female
  • Humans
  • In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence
  • Karyotyping
  • Male
  • Mutation, Missense / genetics
  • Osteogenesis Imperfecta / genetics
  • Osteogenesis Imperfecta / pathology*
  • Phenotype*
  • Silver-Russell Syndrome / genetics
  • Silver-Russell Syndrome / pathology*


  • Collagen Type I
  • Collagen Type I, alpha 1 Chain