Objectives: The aim of the current study was to assess the effect of maternal HIV infection, treated or untreated, on the degree of placental invasion, as assessed by the pulsatility index of the uterine arteries during a Doppler examination at 11(+0) -13(+6) weeks' gestation.
Methods: This was a nested case-control study in which a uterine artery Doppler examination was performed in the first trimester in 76 HIV-positive women. Each woman was matched with 30 HIV-negative women. As the pulsatility index of the uterine arteries depends on a number of maternal and fetal characteristics, its values in each case and control were expressed as multiples of the median (MoM) of the unaffected group.
Results: Among the 76 HIV-positive women, 33 (43.4%) were on antiretroviral treatment at the time of the Doppler examination, including 14 women (42.4%) on nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and a protease inhibitor, 18 women (54.5%) on NRTIs and a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor and one woman (3.1%) on monotherapy. Compared with the HIV-negative women, the HIV-positive women were more likely to be heavier (P<0.01), to be of African origin (P<0.01), to be nonsmokers (P=0.01) and to deliver smaller neonates earlier (P<0.01). The median adjusted pulsatility index of the uterine arteries was not statistically different between the cases and controls [1.07; interquartile range (IQR) 0.85-1.24 MoM vs. 0.99; IQR 0.81-1.20 MoM; P= 0.28] or, in HIV-positive women, between those receiving and not receiving antiretroviral treatment (P=0.12).
Conclusions: HIV-positive women with uncomplicated pregnancies have normal placental perfusion in the first trimester of pregnancy.
2011 British HIV Association.