Evaluation of the reproductive and developmental toxicity of aluminium ammonium sulfate in a two-generation study in rats

Food Chem Toxicol. 2011 Sep;49(9):1948-59. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2011.04.035. Epub 2011 May 5.


Aluminium ammonium sulfate (AAS) was tested for reproductive/developmental toxicity in a two-generation study. Male and female rats were continuously given AAS in drinking water at 0, 50, 500 or 5000 ppm. Water consumption was decreased in all AAS-treated groups, and the body weight of parental animals transiently decreased in the 5000 ppm group. In either generation, no compound-related changes were found in estrous cyclicity, sperm parameters, copulation, fertility and gestation index, number of implantations and live birth pups, sex ratios of pups or viability during the preweaning period. Male and female F1 pups in the 5000 ppm group showed a lower body weight on postnatal day 21, while there were no differences in the birth weight of F1 and F2 pups between the control and AAS-treated groups. Preweaning body weight gain in F2 males and females indicated a similar decreasing tendency at 5000 ppm. In F1 and F2 weanlings, the weight of the liver, spleen and thymus decreased at 5000 ppm, but no histopathological changes were found in these organs. In F1 females in the 5000 ppm group, vaginal opening was delayed slightly. There were no compound-related changes in male preputial separation or in other developmental landmarks. In behavioral tests conducted for F1 animals at 4-6 weeks of age, no compound-related changes were found in spontaneous locomotor activity and performance in a water-filled multiple T-maze. In conclusion, the NOAEL of AAS for two-generation reproductive/developmental toxicity was considered to be 500 ppm in rats. Considering the aluminium content in the basal diet, the total ingested dose of aluminium from drinking water and food in this 500 ppm group was calculated to be 5.35 mgAl/kgbw/day.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alum Compounds / toxicity*
  • Animals
  • Behavior, Animal / drug effects
  • Body Weight / drug effects
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Female
  • Male
  • Organ Size / drug effects
  • Rats
  • Reproduction / drug effects*
  • Teratogens / toxicity*


  • Alum Compounds
  • Teratogens
  • aluminum ammonium sulfate