Human parvovirus B19, the cause of erythema infectiosum, has recently been associated with adverse fetal outcomes. During a large outbreak of erythema infectiosum in Connecticut, a survey was conducted on 571 (90%) of 634 school and day-care personnel to determine the risk of acquiring B19 infection. Serologic evidence of B19 infection was determined by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of the school and day-care personnel, 58% had evidence of previous B19 infection. The minimal rate of B19 infection in susceptible personnel during the outbreak was 19%. The risk was increased for teachers and day-care providers who had contact with younger children and with greater numbers of ill children. These results suggest that B19 infection is an occupational risk for school and day-care personnel.