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Review
, 32 (7), 335-43

Histone Deacetylases as Regulators of Inflammation and Immunity

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Review

Histone Deacetylases as Regulators of Inflammation and Immunity

Melanie R Shakespear et al. Trends Immunol.

Abstract

Histone deacetylases (HDACs) remove an acetyl group from lysine residues of target proteins to regulate cellular processes. Small-molecule inhibitors of HDACs cause cellular growth arrest, differentiation and/or apoptosis, and some are used clinically as anticancer drugs. In animal models, HDAC inhibitors are therapeutic for several inflammatory diseases, but exacerbate atherosclerosis and compromise host defence. Loss of HDAC function has also been linked to chronic lung diseases in humans. These contrasting effects might reflect distinct roles for individual HDACs in immune responses. Here, we review the current understanding of innate and adaptive immune pathways that are regulated by classical HDAC enzymes. The objective is to provide a rationale for targeting (or not targeting) individual HDAC enzymes with inhibitors for future immune-related applications.

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