The effects of the selective 5-HT1A receptor agonist gepirone (10 and 20 mg orally) on neuroendocrine function and temperature were assessed using a single-blind cross-over design in 12 healthy male volunteers. Gepirone significantly increased plasma levels of ACTH, beta-endorphin, cortisol, prolactin and growth hormone. Following gepirone there was a significant decrease in body temperature and moderate increases in subjective reports of light-headedness, nausea and drowsiness. Our results are consistent with studies in rodents suggesting that 5-HT1A receptor agonists increase ACTH and prolactin secretion and decrease body temperature. Further investigations are needed to determine if the neuroendocrine and temperature effects of gepirone in humans are mediated by 5-HT1A receptors.