lordif: An R Package for Detecting Differential Item Functioning Using Iterative Hybrid Ordinal Logistic Regression/Item Response Theory and Monte Carlo Simulations

J Stat Softw. 2011 Mar 1;39(8):1-30. doi: 10.18637/jss.v039.i08.


Logistic regression provides a flexible framework for detecting various types of differential item functioning (DIF). Previous efforts extended the framework by using item response theory (IRT) based trait scores, and by employing an iterative process using group-specific item parameters to account for DIF in the trait scores, analogous to purification approaches used in other DIF detection frameworks. The current investigation advances the technique by developing a computational platform integrating both statistical and IRT procedures into a single program. Furthermore, a Monte Carlo simulation approach was incorporated to derive empirical criteria for various DIF statistics and effect size measures. For purposes of illustration, the procedure was applied to data from a questionnaire of anxiety symptoms for detecting DIF associated with age from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System.