Phlebotomus duboscqi is the principle vector of Leishmania major, the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), in West Africa and is the suspected vector in Mali. Although found throughout the country the seasonality and infection prevalence of P. duboscqi has not been established in Mali. We conducted a three year study in two neighboring villages, Kemena and Sougoula, in Central Mali, an area with a leishmanin skin test positivity of up to 45%. During the first year, we evaluated the overall diversity of sand flies. Of 18,595 flies collected, 12,952 (69%) belonged to 12 species of Sergentomyia and 5,643 (31%) to two species of the genus Phlebotomus, P. duboscqi and P. rodhaini. Of those, P. duboscqi was the most abundant, representing 99% of the collected Phlebotomus species. P. duboscqi was the primary sand fly collected inside dwellings, mostly by resting site collection. The seasonality and infection prevalence of P. duboscqi was monitored over two consecutive years. P. dubsocqi were collected throughout the year. Using a quasi-Poisson model we observed a significant annual (year 1 to year 2), seasonal (monthly) and village effect (Kemena versus Sougoula) on the number of collected P. duboscqi. The significant seasonal effect of the quasi-Poisson model reflects two seasonal collection peaks in May-July and October-November. The infection status of pooled P. duboscqi females was determined by PCR. The infection prevalence of pooled females, estimated using the maximum likelihood estimate of prevalence, was 2.7% in Kemena and Sougoula. Based on the PCR product size, L. major was identified as the only species found in flies from the two villages. This was confirmed by sequence alignment of a subset of PCR products from infected flies to known Leishmania species, incriminating P. duboscqi as the vector of CL in Mali.