Rapid dissemination of SIV follows multisite entry after rectal inoculation

PLoS One. 2011 May 9;6(5):e19493. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0019493.


Receptive ano-rectal intercourse is a major cause of HIV infection in men having sex with men and in heterosexuals. Current knowledge of the mechanisms of entry and dissemination during HIV rectal transmission is scarce and does not allow the development of preventive strategies. We investigated the early steps of rectal infection in rhesus macaques inoculated with the pathogenic isolate SIVmac251 and necropsied four hours to nine days later. All macaques were positive for SIV. Control macaques inoculated with heat-inactivated virus were consistently negative for SIV. SIV DNA was detected in the rectum as early as four hours post infection by nested PCR for gag in many laser-microdissected samples of lymphoid aggregates and lamina propria but never in follicle-associated epithelium. Scarce SIV antigen positive cells were observed by immunohistofluorescence in the rectum, among intraepithelial and lamina propria cells as well as in clusters in lymphoid aggregates, four hours post infection and onwards. These cells were T cells and non-T cells that were not epithelial cells, CD68(+) macrophages, DC-SIGN(+) cells or fascin(+) dendritic cells. DC-SIGN(+) cells carried infectious virus. Detection of Env singly spliced mRNA in the mucosa by nested RT-PCR indicated ongoing viral replication. Strikingly, four hours post infection colic lymph nodes were also infected in all macaques as either SIV DNA or infectious virus was recovered. Rapid SIV entry and dissemination is consistent with trans-epithelial transport. Virions appear to cross the follicle-associated epithelium, and also the digestive epithelium. Viral replication could however be more efficient in lymphoid aggregates. The initial sequence of events differs from both vaginal and oral infections, which implies that prevention strategies for rectal transmission will have to be specific. Microbicides will need to protect both digestive and follicle-associated epithelia. Vaccines will need to induce immunity in lymph nodes as well as in the rectum.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Lymph Nodes / virology
  • Macaca mulatta
  • Male
  • Mucous Membrane / virology
  • Rectum / virology*
  • Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / pathology*
  • Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / virology*
  • Simian Immunodeficiency Virus / genetics
  • Simian Immunodeficiency Virus / pathogenicity*
  • Simian Immunodeficiency Virus / physiology*