Wound healing can result in the development of keloid scars that contain atypical fibroblasts and an overabundance of extracellular matrix components. Hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) refers to exposure to pure oxygen under increased atmospheric pressure and is recognized as a valuable supplementary method of treatment for problematic wounds. The effect of HBO in the expression of insulin-like growth factor type 1 (ILGF-1) and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) messenger RNAs was determined by semiquantitative RT-PCR in fibroblasts obtained from keloid scars and nonwound involved skin fibroblast from the same patient. ILGF-1 and TGF-β are the principal mitogens during wound regeneration. We found a decrease in the growth of fibroblasts and in the expression of ILGF-1 and TGF-β messengers in keloid and nonkeloid fibroblast after chronic exposition to hyperbaric oxygenation compared with normal oxygen partial pressure.