γδ T-APCs: a novel tool for immunotherapy?

Cell Mol Life Sci. 2011 Jul;68(14):2443-52. doi: 10.1007/s00018-011-0706-6. Epub 2011 May 15.

Abstract

The series of seminal articles in this book clearly illustrate the multi-functional nature of γδ T cells. Some of the functions correlate with the tissue tropism of distinct γδ T cell subsets whereas others appear to result from oligoclonal selection. Here, we discuss the antigen-presenting cell (APC) function of the major subset of circulating γδ T cells, Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells, present in human blood. During tissue culture, Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells uniformly respond to a class of non-peptide antigens, so-called prenyl pyrophosphates, derived from stressed host cells or from microbes. It is this feature that distinguishes human (and primate) Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells from αβ and γδ T cells of all other species and that forms the basis for detailed studies of human Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells. One of the consequences of Vγ9/Vδ2 T cell activation is the rapid acquisition of APC characteristics (γδ T-APCs) reminiscent of mature dendritic cells (DCs). In the following discussion, we will discriminate between the potential use of γδ T-APCs as a cellular vaccine in immunotherapy and their role in anti-microbial immunity. Exploiting the APC function in γδ T-APCs represents a true novelty in current immunotherapy research and may lead to effective, anti-tumor immunity in cancer patients.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antigen-Presenting Cells / immunology*
  • Antigen-Presenting Cells / metabolism
  • Antigens / immunology
  • Cytokines / immunology
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Diphosphates / immunology
  • Humans
  • Immunotherapy / methods*
  • Lymphocyte Activation / immunology
  • Models, Immunological
  • Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta / immunology*
  • Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta / metabolism
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology*
  • T-Lymphocytes / metabolism

Substances

  • Antigens
  • Cytokines
  • Diphosphates
  • Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta