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. 2012 Feb;22(2):121-34.
doi: 10.1007/s00572-011-0387-x. Epub 2011 May 15.

Ectomycorrhizal Fungal Communities of Native and Non-Native Pinus and Quercus Species in a Common Garden of 35-year-old Trees

Free PMC article

Ectomycorrhizal Fungal Communities of Native and Non-Native Pinus and Quercus Species in a Common Garden of 35-year-old Trees

Lidia K Trocha et al. Mycorrhiza. .
Free PMC article


Non-native tree species have been widely planted or have become naturalized in most forested landscapes. It is not clear if native trees species collectively differ in ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) diversity and communities from that of non-native tree species. Alternatively, EMF species community similarity may be more determined by host plant phylogeny than by whether the plant is native or non-native. We examined these unknowns by comparing two genera, native and non-native Quercus robur and Quercus rubra and native and non-native Pinus sylvestris and Pinus nigra in a 35-year-old common garden in Poland. Using molecular and morphological approaches, we identified EMF species from ectomycorrhizal root tips and sporocarps collected in the monoculture tree plots. A total of 69 EMF species were found, with 38 species collected only as sporocarps, 18 only as ectomycorrhizas, and 13 both as ectomycorrhizas and sporocarps. The EMF species observed were all native and commonly associated with a Holarctic range in distribution. We found that native Q. robur had ca. 120% higher total EMF species richness than the non-native Q. rubra, while native P. sylvestris had ca. 25% lower total EMF species richness than non-native P. nigra. Thus, across genera, there was no evidence that native species have higher EMF species diversity than exotic species. In addition, we found a higher similarity in EMF communities between the two Pinus species than between the two Quercus species. These results support the naturalization of non-native trees by means of mutualistic associations with cosmopolitan and novel fungi.


Fig. 1
Fig. 1
Phylogenetic analysis of Cortinariaceae and Russulaceae constructed using MEGA4.1 applying Kimura’s two-parameter model. GenBank accession numbers from ectomycorrhizas or sporocarps studied and their best blastn matches are shown and all bootstrap values are indicated
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
Visualization of ectomycorrhizal species occurrence on tree species studied. Each row of the matrix represents an ectomycorrhizal species while each column represents a tree species. Black squares were used for belowground EMF species and gray squares for the aboveground sporocarps
Fig. 3
Fig. 3
Dendrogram of contigs derived from CodonCode Aligner using ITS sequences obtained from EMF morphotypes, selected sporocarps, and their best matches from GenBank, UNITE matches, and sporocarps collected in the study plots

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