Objective: To apply a case-finding strategy in Mexico to identify chronic airway obstruction among individuals with risk factors and/or symptoms compatible with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Material and methods: Individuals aged ≥ 40 years with known risk factors and/or symptoms compatible with COPD were referred for an interview and spirometry.
Results: Of 2293 subjects included, 472 (20.6%) had a post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity ratio of <70% (for Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] Stages II-IV, prevalence was 17.1%). Those with airflow obstruction had smoked more cigarettes for more years than subjects without (19 vs. 13 cigarettes/day, P < 0.001, and 32 vs. 23 years, P < 0.001); they also had a more frequent history of exposure to biomass smoke (23.3% vs. 18.3%, P = 0.002). Females were exposed to biomass smoke for more years (24 vs. 19 years; P < 0.0001) and more hours per day than males (6.2 vs. 5.1; P < 0.001). In multiple logistic regression analysis, increasing age, male sex, ever smoking, pack-years of smoking and years of exposure to biomass smoke were significantly associated with COPD prevalence.
Conclusions: Airflow obstruction was identified in one in five of Mexican individuals with risk factors and/or COPD symptoms. Exposure to biomass smoke was significantly associated with the presence of airflow obstruction.