[Prevention of atherosclerosis. The positional specificity of blood triglycerides and lipases, the particular milk lipids, and the modification of the fatty acids of vegetable oils and animal fats]

Klin Lab Diagn. 2011 Mar;(3):3-13.
[Article in Russian]


Milk is a biological medium that bears no resemblance to any of the biological fluids and tissues in primates and mammals in the positional composition of fatty acids (FA) in triglycerides. This is determined by the fact that at the very early phylogenesis of mammals, milk is to ensure a high postnatal bioavailability (absorption) of saturated palmitic FA, a substrate for neonatal energy supply despite all obstacles that are formed in the baby's intestine in vivo. Milk is destined for infant nutrition in the biology-destined period (not more than a year); assimilation of triglycerides that are so structurally unusual requires a) high isomerization activity in the enterocytes and b) the ability of blood lipases to hydrolyze palmitate-oleate-palmitate triglycerides as a component of oleic very-low-density lipoproteins. After the period permitted by nature, there is virtually no possibility to physiologically consume milk that contains structurally unusual triglycerides. The use of whole milk and its products by adults impairs the active, receptor cell absorption of FAs as ligand lipoproteins via apoE/B-100-endocytosis and enhances the generation of small, dense low-density lipoproteins as biological debris. The impaired biological function of endoecology and the debris accumulation of the intercellular medium lead to the activation of atheromatosis, atherothrombosis, and coronary sclerosis. Nature has given no sanction for turning the mammals that are not on milk to those on milk for whole life. Up to one year of age, the baby has in vivo conditions for the absorption and hydrolysis of triglycerides with palmitic FA at the sn-2 position. After one year of age, the expression of these lipases and coenzymes is over; re-expression occurs only with the activation of the biological function of locomotion - long-term strenuous physical activity. High physical activity expresses other genes, enzymes, coenzymes, and carrier proteins, which activate the hydrolysis of triglycerides high in palmitic FA. These mechanisms are similar to those activated in vivo during the early postnatal period.

Publication types

  • English Abstract

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Animals
  • Atherosclerosis / prevention & control*
  • Fatty Acids / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Lipase / blood*
  • Milk / chemistry*
  • Plant Oils / chemistry
  • Triglycerides / blood*


  • Fatty Acids
  • Plant Oils
  • Triglycerides
  • Lipase