Identification of candidate genes for histiocytoid cardiomyopathy (HC) using whole genome expression analysis: analyzing material from the HC registry

Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2011 Sep-Oct;14(5):370-7. doi: 10.2350/10-05-0826-OA.1. Epub 2011 May 17.


Histiocytoid cardiomyopathy (HC) is a rare but distinctive arrhythmogenic disorder characterized by incessant ventricular tachycardia, cardiomegaly, and often sudden death by age 2 years. The underlying genetic mechanism of HC has eluded researchers for decades. To further identify the potential molecular-genetic bases of HC, molecular analyses of HC hearts and hearts of age-matched controls were performed. Total RNA and genomic DNA were prepared from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cardiac tissue from 12 cases of HC and 12 age-matched controls. To identify genes differentially expressed in HC, whole genome cDNA-mediated annealing, selection, extension, and ligation profiling was performed. TaqMan quantitative polymerase chain reaction confirmed changes in RNA expression. DNA copy number changes were measured by TaqMan copy number variant analysis. Analysis of differential gene expression in HC cases identified 2 significantly downregulated gene sets aligned sequentially along the genome. The 1st gene cluster consisted of genes S100A8 , S100A9 , and S100A12 at 1q21.3c, and the 2nd cluster consisted of genes IL1RL1 ( ST2 ), IL18R1 , and IL18RAP at 2q12.1a. Strong decreases in interleukin 33 expression were also observed. Decreases in copy number of the S100A genes were confirmed by TaqMan copy number variant assays. S100A genes are downstream of the p38-MAPK pathway that can be activated by interleukin 33 signaling. These data suggest a model in which the interleukin 33-IL1RL1/p38-MAPK/ S100A8-S100A9 axis is downregulated in HC cardiac tissue and provide several candidate genes on 1q21.3c and 2q12.1a for inherited mutations that may predispose individuals to HC.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Cardiomyopathies / congenital*
  • Cardiomyopathies / genetics
  • Cardiomyopathies / metabolism
  • Cardiomyopathies / pathology
  • DNA / analysis
  • Down-Regulation / genetics
  • Electron Transport Complex III / deficiency
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Gene Expression Regulation*
  • Genome, Human / genetics*
  • Genome-Wide Association Study / methods*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Myocardium / chemistry
  • Myocardium / metabolism
  • Myocardium / pathology
  • Purkinje Fibers / chemistry
  • Purkinje Fibers / metabolism
  • Purkinje Fibers / pathology
  • RNA / analysis
  • Registries


  • RNA
  • DNA
  • Electron Transport Complex III

Supplementary concepts

  • Cardiomyopathy, infantile histiocytoid