Risk of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma in patients with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I): case-control study results

Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2011;17(1):19-23. doi: 10.5761/atcs.oa.09.01529.

Abstract

Background: Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I) causes not only adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) but also HTLV-I associated T-cell bronchioloalveolitis, which is often chronic and subclinical. We have experienced eight HTVL-I carriers with bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, which is known to arise from bronchioloalveolar pneumocytes. This case-control study clarified the risk of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma in HTLV-I carriers.

Materials and methods: During the past four years, 212 lung cancer patients were examined for serum anti-HTLV-I antibody. They underwent surgical treatment for lung cancer at Kumamoto University Hospital. Of these, 8 (4%) were HTLV-I carriers. As controls for this case-control study, we selected 24 HTLV-I negative-lung cancer patients (1:3 case-control ratio) matched for sex, age, and smoking status. The distributions of histological types of lung cancer were compared between the case (HTLV-I positive) and control (HTLV-I negative) groups.

Results: Histological types of the 8 HTLV-I carriers were bronchioloalveolar carcinoma in 6 patients and adenocarcinoma with bronchioloalveolar carcinoma component in 2. The prevalence of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma in HTLV-I carriers, 6 of 8 (75%), was significantly higher than the 6 of 24 (25%) in HTLV-I negative patients (p = 0.02). The prevalence of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma or adenocarcinoma with bronchioloalveolar carcinoma component in HTLV-I carriers, 8 of 8 (100%), was also significantly higher than the 13 of 24 (54%) in HTLV-I negative patients (p = 0.02).

Conclusion: HTLV-I might be one risk of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, probably because of inflammatory and/or immunologic responses involving bronchioloalveolar pneumocytes.

MeSH terms

  • Adenocarcinoma, Bronchiolo-Alveolar / diagnosis
  • Adenocarcinoma, Bronchiolo-Alveolar / epidemiology
  • Adenocarcinoma, Bronchiolo-Alveolar / surgery
  • Adenocarcinoma, Bronchiolo-Alveolar / virology*
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Alveolar Epithelial Cells / virology
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Deltaretrovirus Antibodies / blood
  • Female
  • HTLV-I Infections / complications*
  • HTLV-I Infections / diagnosis
  • HTLV-I Infections / epidemiology
  • Hospitals, University
  • Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 / immunology
  • Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 / pathogenicity*
  • Humans
  • Japan / epidemiology
  • Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Lung Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • Lung Neoplasms / surgery
  • Lung Neoplasms / virology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Time Factors

Substances

  • Biomarkers
  • Deltaretrovirus Antibodies