This study examined factors affecting the survival of 28 consecutive patients with malignant mixed Mullerian tumors diagnosed at New York University Medical Center from 1971 through 1985. The cumulative 5-year survival for all patients was 38%. Patients with pedunculated tumors (18/25) had a significantly improved 5-year survival of 53% compared with patients having a tumor with a broad-based attachment (7/25), all of whom died within 1 year (p less than 0.01). Eleven patients whose tumors demonstrated vascular invasion had a worse prognosis compared with 14 patients without demonstrable vascular invasion (18% versus 53% 5-year survival; p less than 0.05). Interestingly, patients with pedunculated tumors persisted in having an improved survival even after correcting for vascular invasion, compared with patients having broad-based tumor attachment. Small tumor size (less than or equal to 7 cm) also proved to be a significant and independent prognostic indicator for improved survival. Advanced stage, heterologous sarcomatous elements, and deep myometrial invasion (greater than one-third invasion) tended to be associated with decreased survival, but not with statistical significance. Patient age and grade of the carcinoma element did not appear to affect survival.